Ceratosaurus / meaning 'horned lizard', in reference to the horn on its nose (Greek keras/keratos meaning 'horn' and sauros meaning 'lizard'), was a large predatory dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Period, found in the Morrison Formation of North America, in Tanzania and possibly in Portugal. It was characterized by large jaws with enormous, bladelike teeth, a large, blade-like horn on the snout and a pair hornlets over the eyes. The forelimbs were powerfully built but very short. The bones of the sacrum were fused (synsacrum) and the pelvic bones were fused together and to this structure (Sereno 1997) (i.e. similar to modern birds). Evidence suggests that there may also have been a row of small spurs or even a low sail, along the spine.
Discovery and species
Ceratosaurus is known from the Cleveland Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry in central Utah and the Dry Mesa Quarry in Colorado. The type species, described by O. C. Marsh in 1884 and redescribed by Gilmore in 1920, is Ceratosaurus nasicornis. Two further species have recently been described in 2000, C. magnicornis, and dentisulcatus. However, additional species, including C. ingens, C. stechowi and a species that has been referred to as C. meriani, from Portugal, have been described from less complete material. While C. nasicornis remains the type species and is cited at around 6 meters (20 feet) in length, additional finds indicate that this species may be misleadingly small, and that Ceratosaurus was likely larger. Very scant remains of a Ceratosaurus-like theropod have been found in Tanzania and would have belonged to an animal at least 15 meters (50 feet) in length, much larger than Allosaurus.
Ceratosaurus lived alongside dinosaurs such as Allosaurus, Torvosaurus, Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, and Stegosaurus. It may have competed with Allosaurus for prey, though it was smaller at around 6 to 8 meters (20-27 feet) in length, weighing 500 kg up to 1 tonne. Ceratosaurus had a longer, more flexible body, with a tail shaped like a crocodilian. This suggests that it was a better swimmer than the stiffer Allosaurus. A recent study by Bakker confirmed that Ceratosaurs generally hunted aquatic prey, such as fish and crocodiles, although it had potential for feeding on large dinosaurs. The study also suggests that sometimes adults and juveniles ate together. This evidence is, of course, very debatable and Ceratosaurus tooth marks are very common on large, terrestrial dinosaur prey fossils.
Relatives of Ceratosaurus include Elaphrosaurus and the abelisaur Carnotaurus. The classification of Ceratosaurus and its immediate relatives has been under intense debate recently. In the past, Ceratosaurus, the Cretaceous Albelisaurs and the primitive Coelophysoidae were all grouped together and called Ceratosauria, defined as theropods closer to Ceratosaurus than to the lineage of aves. Recent evidence, however, has shown large distinctions between the later, larger and more advanced Ceratosaurs and earlier forms like Coelophysis, leading to the naming of the later theropods as Neoceratosauria and closer to, or perhaps even ancesteral to, Tetanuran carnosaurus like Allosaurus. Many Theropods no longer considered close to Ceratosaurus were once classified as relatives, including Eustreptospondylus and Yangchuanosaurus. While it is likely that they are not Neoceratosaurs these 'more advanced' theropods do display a sort of middle ground of primitive characteristics compared to Allosaurs (Eustreptospondylus lacks the Allosaur expanded boot-shaped pubic bone, instead having a rod shaped pubis like Ceratosaurus. Many Sinraptors and Allosaurs have a tendency to grow elaborate and multiple horn rows, very visible in Yangchuanosaurus and prominent in Ceratosaurus). Some of the most modern publishings have even begun listing Ceratosaurus as a basal Tetanurae and closer to Allosaurus than Coelophysis. While considered distant from the lineage of aves among the theropods, Ceratosaurus and its kin were still very bird-like and even had a more 'advanced-looking tarsus than Allosaurus. As with all dinosaurs, the more fossils found of these animals, the better their evolution and relationships can be understood.
Stegosaurus (Steg·o·sau·rus)[Gr.,=roof lizard], quadriped ornithischian dinosaur of the late Jurassic period. About 29 ft 6 in (9 m) long, it had short forelegs, four long bony spikes on a flexible tail, and two rows of upright triangular bony plates running along the back, which gave it a serrated profile. The function of the plates is debated. They may have acted as deterrents to predatory dinosaurs, but some scientists have suggested that they were not strong enough to have functioned that way. Other theories are that they helped regulate body temperature by dissipating heat or absorbing solar rays or that they helped members of the species recognize each other. The head of Stegosaurus was small, and the brain weighed about 2.5 oz (71 grams). The front of the mouth was beak-shaped; there were small leaf-shaped teeth in the cheek area. An herbivore, Stegosaurus, along with Ankylosaurus, belongs to the group of armored dinosaurs, Thyreophora. Fossil skeletons have been found in the Jurassic beds of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.
Stegosaurus is one of the most easily identifiable dinosaurs thanks to its large and foreboding appearance. Truth be told, paleontologists are unsure of how the spike-like plates on the Stegosaurus' back aligned themselves as they were not part of the bone. Some theories suggest that the plates were used to regulate the dinosaur's temperature (possibly by flapping the plates back and forth) or to ward off insects like cows and horses do today. They were most likely placed upward when a predator approached to give the illusion that the Stegosaurus was sharp and deadly. The plates could also have been used in mating practices.
Though the number of plates on the Stegosaurus' back hardly differ from skeleton to skeleton (they all had 17 plates), the number of horns on its tail does differ depending upon the species. Stegosaurus ungulatis carried eight horns on its tail while Stegosaurus stenops carried only four. Its rear legs were nearly twice as long as its front legs and reached more out to the side than its front limbs. The feet on each front legs had five toes while the rear feet had only three. Any reason for this uneven set up is unknown.
Protoceratops, (its name meaning 'First Horned Face' derived from the Greek proto-/ meaning 'first', cerat-/ meaning 'horn' and -ops/ meaning face) was a sheep-sized (1.5 to 2m long) herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur, from the Upper Cretaceous Period of what is now Mongolia. Unlike later ceratopsians, it lacked well-developed horns. Protoceratops had a large neck frill, which may have served to protect the neck, to anchor jaw muscles, to impress other members of the species or combinations of these functions.
Discovery and species
Protoceratops was discovered during the 1920s, in the Gobi desert, in Gansu, Inner Mongolia. Many skeletons were discovered by the American expedition. the type species, P. andrewsi, was formally described by Granger and Gregory in 1923. The fossils date from the Campanian epoch of the Upper Cretaceous (83.5 to 70.6 Million Years Ago).
In 1971, a fossil was found that captured a Velociraptor clutched around a Protoceratops in Mongolia. It is believed that they died simultaneously, while fighting, when they were either surprised by a sand storm or buried when a sand dune collapsed on top of them. A second species, P. hellenikorhinus, was named in 2001 from the Bayan Mandahu formation in Inner Mongolia, China and also dates from the Campanian epoch of the Upper Cretaceous. It is notably larger than P. andrewsi. In the 1920s, Roy Chapman Andrews discovered the first known fossilized dinosaur eggs, in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. Due to the proximity of Protoceratops, these eggs were believed at the time to belong to this species. The nearby theropod Oviraptor was thought to have been engaged in the process of stealing and eating them. However, later discoveries indicate that the eggs were in fact Oviraptor's own.
Parasaurolophus was a genus of hadrosaurid (duck-billed) dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period (about 76-65 million years ago) of what is now North America. Its name means 'near crested lizard', which refers to another hadrosaurid, Saurolophus, discovered before Parasaurolophus. Parasaurolophus were about 10 m (33 ft) long, 5 m (16 ft) high and weighed around 3500 kg (7,700 lb). Like other hadrosaurs, they were facultatively bipedal, i.e. they could alternate between two legs and four, probably preferring a quadrupedal gait while they foraged for food and assuming a bipedal mode for faster running.Their most noticeable feature would have been the six-foot long curved crest, protruding from the rear of the head, often longer in males than in females. This hollow crest was probably used for intraspecific communication by both males and females and for display by the males. Many scientists also think the crest gave Parasaurolophus an excellent sense of smell. Parasaurolophus is often depicted with a flap of skin running from the bottom of the crest to the base of the neck, though there is no evidence of this. There were about three species but two of them are known only by incomplete remains. The best known species is Parasaurolophus walkeri. Parasaurolophus probably lived in large herds and inhabited flood plains. They were herbivores but they were not, as was once thought, aquatic. They were fully terrestrial animals, as evidenced by footprints. They could possibly swim but they lived their entire lives on land. Parasaurolophus may have been prey for large carnivorous theropods, such as Daspletosaurus. Fossils of Parasaurolophus have been found across North America and a complete skeleton was found in Canada.
Corythosaurus / meaning 'helmet lizard' because of the shape of its crest (Greek korythos meaning 'helmet' and sauros meaning 'lizard') was a duck-billed dinosaur genus from the Upper Cretaceous Period, about 80 million years ago. It lived in what is now North America.
Discoveries The first specimen was discovered in 1912 by Barnum Brown in Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada . As well as an almost complete skeleton, the find was remarkable because much of the creature's fossilised skin had also survived. In 1916, the Canadian (Canadian Pacific Lines) ship Mount Temple was carrying two specimens and other fossils from today's Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada to Britain. It was sunk by the German surface raider SMS Moewe, sending its 75 million year old cargo to the bottom of the North Atlantic, where it rests to this day.
The beak was toothless, but the back of the jaws contained a dental battery composed of hundreds of small, interlocking teeth. These were used to crush and grind plant matter and were continually replaced as they wore away. The nasal passages extended into the frill and probably allowed it to act as a sounding device. Corythosaurus weighed in at 4 tonnes and measured roughly 10 metres (35 ft) from nose to tail. It was once thought that this dinosaur lived mostly in the water, due to the appearance of webbed hands and feet. However, it was later discovered that the so-called "webs" were in fact deflated padding, much like that found on many modern mammals. Over 20 skulls have been found from this dinosaur. As with other lambeosaurs, the animal bore a tall, elaborate bony crest atop its skull, which contained the elongate nasal passages. The size and shape may have depended on the gender and age. Before that was discovered, up to seven different species were found. Now only one of them has been approved.
Hylaeosaurus (hi-LAY-ee-oh-SORE-us), from the Greek words hylēe/ "forest" and saurus/ "lizard", is the most obscure of the three animals used by Sir Richard Owen to first define the new group Dinosauria, in 1842. The original specimen, recovered by Gideon Mantell in 1832 from the Tilgate Forest in the south of England in 1832, now resides in the Natural History Museum of London, where it is still encased in the limestone block in which it was found. Despite never having been prepared, it is still the best specimen that exists of this primitive, armored ankylosaurian dinosaur.
Description and environment
Hylaeosaurus lived about 135 million years ago, in the Valanginian to Berriasian ages of the early Cretaceous Period. Gideon Mantell originally estimated that the Hylaeosaurus was about 25 feet (7.5 meters) long, or about half the size of the other two original dinosaurs, the Iguanodon and the Megalosaurus. Modern estimates range from 3 to 6 meters (10 to 20 feet) in length. It is a fairly typical armored dinosaur, with three long spines on its shoulder, two at the hips, and three rows of armor running down its back. It may also have had a row of plates down its tail. It has a long head, more like the head of a Nodosaurus than an Ankylosaurus; and a beak, which it probably used to crop low-lying vegetation.
Hylaeosaurus armatus was first named by Gideon Mantell in 1833, and is currently considered the only species in the genus. It is known from only two partial skeletons, some horny (dermal) spines, armor, and various other minor pieces. The best specimen (the original) is composed of the front end of a skeleton minus most of the head, though only the parts on the face of the stone block are easily studied. Polacanthoides ponderosus, Hylaeosaurus conybearei, and Hylaeosaurus oweni have all been considered distinct dinosaurs in the past, but are now considered to be alternate names for this species (junior synonyms), along with Hylaeosaurus. It has also been suggested that Polacanthus is same species, but there are a number of differences in their bone structure (osteology). Hylaeosaurus is traditionally considered to be a primitive nodosaurid, in the Polocanthinae subfamily, like Gastonia and Polocanthus. In the 1990s, the polocanthines were reclassified as primitive ankylosaurids, because they were mistakenly believed to have small tail-clubs; they are probably primitive ankylosaurids, but as a whole the polacanthines are poorly known. The group peaked in the Barremian age in North America and Europe, and then vanished shortly after, replaced by more advanced ankylosaurians.
The first Hylaeosaurus fossils were discovered in Sussex. Additional remains have been discovered on the Isle of Wight (also part of Great Britain), and in Ardennes, France, though the remains from France may actually belong to a Polacanthus. Mantell published a lithograph of his find in The Geology of the South-east of England in 1833; and another drawing in the fourth edition of The Wonders of Geology, in 1840. Gideon Mantell originally claimed the name Hylaeosaurus meant "forest lizard", after the Tilgate Forest in which it was discovered. Later, he claimed that it meant "Wealden lizard" ("wealden" being another word for forest), in reference to the Wealden Group, the name for the early Cretaceous geological formation in which the dinosaur was first found.
Polacanthus, deriving its name from the Ancient Greek poly-/ "many" and acantha/ "thorn" or "prickle", was an early armored, spiked, plant-eating ankylosaur from the early Cretaceous period. It lived 132 to 112 million years ago in what is now western Europe.
Polacanthus grew to between 4 and 5 meters long. It was a quadrupedal ornithischian or "bird-hipped" dinosaur. There are not many fossil remains of this creature, and some important anatomical features, such as its skull, are poorly known. Polacanthus had a large sacral shield, a single fused sheet of dermal bone over its hips (sacral area) which was not attached to the underlying bone and decorated with tubercles. This feature is shared with other Polacanthine dinosaurs such as Gastonia and Mymoorapelta.
Discovery and species
The genus Polacanthus comprises two species from Europe, with a possible third from the Lower Cretaceous of North America. However, this latter species has been placed by some into a separate genus and is alternately known as Hoplitosaurus marshi.
Osteodontornis is an extinct genus of pelecaniform bird. It contains a single described species, O. orri ("Orr's Bony-toothed Bird"), which was the first of the Pelagornithidae or "pseudo-tooth birds" to become known to science. The arrangement of serrations of the bill - one small "tooth", sometimes flanked by small points, between each 2 larger ones - is characteristic for this genus. This species is well documented (although usually by much fragmented remains due to the thin and tender bones it had) from various locations, between Early Oligocene and Pliocene in age, in Europe, Western North America and Japan. Most importantly, it was found in Early and Middle Miocene sites on both sides of the North Pacific. It is not certain whether all Osteodontornis remains belong to a single species; size differences suggest that some evolution took place during the considerable timespan in which the genus existed. Thus, some fossils are referred to Osteodontornis only, without further assigning them to this species.
With a wingspan of 5,5-6 m (c.18-20 ft) and a height of 1,20 m (4 ft) when on the ground (Olson, 1985), Osteodontornis orri was the second-largest flying bird ever, surpassed only by Argentavis. It had a robust, but extremely light-boned body, procellariiform-like legs and a long beak with teeth-like serrations (not unlike the saw-billed ducks) that ended in a hooked tip. This beak was so heavy the creature probably held it between its shoulders while in flight, just like modern pelicans do.
Osteodontornis' wings were long and narrow. Due to its size, the creature is presumed to have built its nest on high plateaus where it could easily take flight. It was a seabird that apparently lived mainly off squid; the "teeth" were less saw-like than in the fish-eating saw-billed ducks, pointing straight downwards instead. This arrangement would have helped to hold on to such soft-bodied prey. In general lifestyle, it was probably most similar to the albatrosses, tropicbirds and frigatebirds of today, with long slender winds adapted for soaring vast distances over the open seas.
The species was named after then-recently deceased naturalist Ellison Orr.
Troodon was a relatively small, bird-like dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period (75-65 mya). Discovered in 1855, it was among the first dinosaurs found in North America. It is believed to have been one of the most intelligent dinosaurs.
This small dinosaur was around 2 m (6.5 ft) in length, 1 m (3 ft) tall, and weighed 60 kg (130 lb). Its eyes were large (perhaps suggesting nocturnal activity) and slightly forward facing, giving Troodon some depth perception.
Troodon (pronounced "Tro-odon") is Greek for "wounding tooth", referring to the dinosaur's serrated teeth (although these may actually have been adapted for herbivorous feeding, see below). Its diet consisted of smaller animals, including mammals and perhaps a significant amount of plant material as well.
Troodon had long 'arms' that folded back like a bird's and its 'hands' possessed partially opposable thumbs. It had large, sickle-shaped claws on its second toes, which were raised off the ground when running. This claw is common in the group Maniraptora, to which Troodon belongs.
Troodon had one of the largest known brains of any dinosaur, relative to its body mass (comparable to modern birds). Eggs have also been discovered, in nests.
Troodon is known from the Judith River Formation of Montana, the Judith River Group of Alberta, the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta, the North Slope of Alaska and in the famous Hell Creek Formation of the USA. There is some evidence that Troodon favored cooler climates, as it seems to have been particularly abundant in northern areas and during cooler intervals, such as the Early Maastrichtian. It seems unlikely that all of these fossils, which come from localities hundreds or thousands of miles apart, separated by millions of years of time, represent a single species of Troodon. However, further study and more fossils are needed to determine how many species of Troodon existed.
Troodon had very long, slender limbs, suggesting that the animal was able to move quite quickly. Although originally thought to have been a predator, there is some evidence that Troodon may either have been an omnivore or a herbivore. The jaws met in a broad, U-shaped symphysis similar to that of an iguana and the teeth were leaf-like, bearing large serrations like those of herbivorous dinosaurs. In addition, the teeth were short but broad, with wear facets on their sides. In these respects Troodon was again more like plant eating dinosaurs than carnivores such as Dromaeosauridae. A specimen of Troodon is known from Montana, sitting atop a clutch of eggs.
Troodon was originally spelled Troödon (with a diaeresis) by Joseph Leidy in 1856, which was officially amended to its current status by Sauvage in 1876.
The Troodon tooth was originally classified as a "lacertian" (lizard) by Leidy, but re-assigned as a megalosaurid dinosaur by Nopsca in 1901 (Megalosauridae having historically been a wastebin taxon for most carnivorous dinosaurs). In 1924, Gilmore suggested that the tooth belonged to the herbivorous pachycephalosaur Stegoceras, and that Stegoceras was in fact a junior synonym of Troodon (the similarity of troodontid teeth to those of herbivorous dinosaurs continues to lead many paleontologists to believe that these animals were omnivores). In 1945, Charles Hazelius Sternberg rejected the possibility that Troodon was a pachycephalosaur due to its stronger similarity to the teeth of other carnivorous dinosaurs.
The first specimen of Troodon that was not a tooth, then referred to its own genus (Stenonychosaurus), was named by Sternberg in 1932, based on a foot, fragments of a hand, and some caudal vertebrae from Alberta. A remarkable feature of these remains was the enlarged claw on the second toe, which is now recognized as characteristic of Deinonychosauria. Sternberg initially classified Stenonychosaurus as a member of the family Coeluridae. Later, Sternberg (1951) speculated that since Stenonychosaurus had a "very peculiar pes" and Troodon "equally unusual teeth", they may be closely related. Unfortunately, no comparable specimens were available at that time to test the idea.
A more complete skeleton of Stenonychosaurus was described by Dale Russell in 1969, which eventually formed the scientific foundation for a famous life-sized sculpture of Stenonychosaurus accompanied by its fictional, human-like descendant, the "dinosauroid". Stenonychosaurus became a well-known theropod in the 1980s, when the feet and braincase were described in more detail. Phil Currie, reviewing the known Troodontidae in 1987, reclassified Stenonychosaurus inequalis as a junior synonym of Troodon formosus. This synonymy has been widely adopted by other paleontologists, and therefore all of the specimens once called Stenonychosaurus are now referred to as Troodon in the recent scientific literature.
The Euoplocephalus is most easily compared to its relative, the Ankylosaurus, that lived during the same time. Both exhibited a small, top-covered body and sides with thick, oval-shaped plates that were actually fused onto the skin underneath. The Euoplocephalus also had several spike-like protrusions on its head and just below its neck as well as smaller protrusions down its back. Its long tail had a thick bony club at the end that it could use to swing at predators, delivering a heavy blow to even the largest animals. Its only weak spot was the underbelly and if a Euoplocephalus was turned over, it almost certainly meant death.
The Euoplocephalus moved around on four legs, the hind legs being longer than the front. Its skull had only a pair of unique "cheek teeth" which aided in chewing harder plants and sticks. The rest of its "beak," meanwhile, was toothless. The dinosaur's brain was tiny and offered little intelligence, and swinging its tail may even have been an involuntary reaction to the stimuli of being attacked.
bricabrach: Hi Ben, welcome to our forum. What’s often been recommended in the past is to see what your item has been selling for on eBay.
Aug 28, 2019 20:40:23 GMT -5
Ben: Can anyone help me out with pricing? Any information is helpful.
Aug 25, 2019 9:07:15 GMT -5
applejack: Hi Kivuli. There's plenty of cross-pollination of members between the various Dinotopia forums, so the names you see here and on other boards are almost certainly the same people. Welcome to the official message board!
Jul 7, 2019 18:40:36 GMT -5
Kivuli: I've seen this list posted on other boards. This one seems to have the most activity. Is this a migration of the same users?
Jul 5, 2019 20:44:58 GMT -5
cptstarlight: Dinotopia, like returning to the company of an old friend. Should old friends be forgot and never thought upon? I think not.
Feb 14, 2019 6:57:52 GMT -5
bricabrach: And yes! There's nothing like Dinotopia! Breathe deep, seek peace.
Nov 11, 2018 19:42:49 GMT -5
DinoAnon: Remember to uphold personal honour and find your own glory in the world and your traditions. Halcyon and the Knights of the Unrivaled could have done no less. Good bye, Dinotopia.
Nov 8, 2018 23:50:51 GMT -5