Kritosaurus (meaning "separated lizard"; sometimes misinterpreted as "noble lizard", in reference to the presumed "Roman nose"; the nasal region was fragmented, disarticulated, and originally restored flat) is an incompletely known but historically important genus of hadrosaurid (duckbilled) dinosaur. It lived about 73 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous of North and possibly South America. Its taxonomic history is convoluted, also incorporating Gryposaurus, Anasazisaurus, and Naashoibitosaurus; this tangle will remain unresolved until better remains of Kritosaurus are described. Despite the dearth of material, this herbivore appeared in dinosaur books until the 1990s, although what was usually represented was the much more completely known Gryposaurus, then thought to be a synonym.
Kritosaurus is only definitely determined from a partial skull and lower jaws, and associated undescribed postcranial remains. The greater portion of the muzzle and upper beak are missing, but additional reconstruction in the early 2000s using fragments from the skull that had not been placed before show part of a crest in front of the eyes; the form of the crest is unknown at this point. The length of the skull is estimated at 87 centimeters (34 in) from the tip of the upper beak to the base of the quadrate that articulates with the lower jaw at the back of the skull. Potential diagnostic characteristics of Kritosaurus include a predentary (lower beak) without tooth-like crenulations, a sharp downward bend to the lower jaws near the beak, and a heavy, somewhat rectangular maxilla (upper tooth-bearing bone). If it turns out to be the same as Anasazisaurus or Naashoibitosaurus, then the form of the complete crest is that of a tab or flange beginning in front of the eyes and rising between and above them, but not extended beyond them.
Kritosaurus was a hadrosaurine hadrosaurid, a flat-headed or solid-crested duckbill. Because it is poorly known, its closest relatives are not yet known. Naashoibitosaurus and "K." australis, both of which appear to be very similar, form a clade with Saurolophus in the most recent review of duckbill phylogeny. In the same work, Kritosaurus is confusingly considered both as distinct at the species level and as a dubious name. Location and time separate Kritosaurus and the slightly older, primarily Canadian Gryposaurus, along with some cranial details.
Discovery and history
In 1904, Barnum Brown discovered the type specimen (AMNH 5799) of Kritosaurus near Ojo Alamo, San Juan County, New Mexico, United States, while following up on a previous expedition. He initially could not definitely correlate the stratigraphy, but by 1916 was able to establish it as from what is now known as the late Campanian-age De-na-zin Member of the Kirtland Formation. When discovered, much of the front of the skull had either eroded or fragmented, and Brown reconstructed this portion after what is now called Anatotitan, leaving out many fragments. However, he had noticed that something was different about the fragments, but ascribed the differences to crushing. He initially wanted to name it Nectosaurus, but found out that this name was already in use; Jan Versluys, who'd visited Brown before the change, inadvertently leaked the previous choice. He kept the species name, though, leading to the combination K. navajovius.
The 1914 publication of the arch-snouted Canadian genus Gryposaurus changed Brown's mind about the anatomy of his dinosaur's snout. Going back through the fragments, he revised the previous reconstruction and gave it a Gryposaurus-like arched nasal crest. He also synonymized Gryposaurus with Kritosaurus, a move supported by Charles Gilmore. This synonymy was used through the 1920s (William Parks's designation of a Canadian species as Kritosaurus incurvimanus) and became standard after the publication of Richard Swann Lull and Nelda Wright's influential 1942 monograph on North American hadrosaurids. From this time until 1990, Kritosaurus would be composed of at least the type species K. navajovius, K. incurvimanus, and K. notabilis, the former type species of Gryposaurus. The poorly known species Hadrosaurus breviceps (Marsh, 1889), known from a dentary from the Campanian-age Judith River Formation of Montana, was also assigned to Kritosaurus by Lull and Wright, but this is no longer accepted.
By the late 1970s and early 1980s, Hadrosaurus had entered the discussion as a possible synonym of either Kritosaurus, Gryposaurus, or both, particularly in semi-technical "dinosaur dictionaries". One well-known work, David B. Norman's The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs, uses Kritosaurus for the Canadian material (Gryposaurus), but confusingly identifies the mounted skeleton of K. incurvimanus as Hadrosaurus. One more species was added to Kritosaurus in these years. In 1984, Argentine paleontologist José Bonaparte and colleagues named K. australis for hadrosaur bones from the late Campanian-early Maastrichtian Los Alamitos Formation of Rio Negro, Patagonia, Argentina. This species has been problematic and may not belong in Kritosaurus, as suggested by the reviews in both editions of The Dinosauria.
The history of Kritosaurus took another turn in 1990, when Jack Horner and David B. Weishampel once again separated Gryposaurus, citing the uncertainty associated with the latter's partial skull. Horner in 1992 described two more skulls from New Mexico that he claimed belonged to Kritosaurus and showed that it was quite different from Gryposaurus, but the following year Adrian Hunt and Spencer G. Lucas put each skull in its own genus, creating Anasazisaurus and Naashoibitosaurus. Not all authors have agreed with this, Thomas E. Williamson in particular defending Horner's original interpretation. At least two recent publications have upheld the different genera, for now.
Finally, the geographic range of potential Kritosaurus remains in North America has expanded. Bones from the late Campanian-age Aguja Formation of Texas, including a skull, have been found. Additionally, newly-described remains from Coahuila, Mexico may represent a new species, one about 20% larger than K. navajovius (around 11 meters [36 ft] long) and with a distinctively curved ischium. This animal would be the largest known well-documented North American hadrosaurine. Unfortunately, the nasal bones are also incomplete in the skull remains from this material.
Tenontosaurus (pronounced ten-ON-toe-SORE-us) is a genus of medium- to large-sized ornithopod dinosaur. It was formerly thought to be a 'hypsilophodont', but since Hypsilophodontia is no longer considered a clade, it is now considered to be a very primitive iguanodont.
The genus is known from the Aptian to Albian stages of the Early to Middle Cretaceous sediments of western North America, dating to around 125 to 105 million years ago. It was about 6.5 to 8 meters (22 to 27 ft) long and 2.2 meters (7 ft) high, with a mass of somewhere between 1 and 2 tonnes (1 to 2 short tons). Its tail was longer than other members of the family, and it walked on four feet most of the time.
The presence of medullary bone tissue in the thigh bone and shin bone of one specimen indicates that tenontosaurs used this tissue, today only found in birds that are laying eggs, in reproduction. Additionally, like Tyrannosaurus and Allosaurus, two other dinosaurs known to have produced medullary bone, the tenontosaur individual was not at full adult size upon her death at 8 years old. Because the theropod line of dinosaurs that includes Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus diverged from the line that led to Tenontosaurus very early in the evolution of dinosaurs, this suggests that dinosaurs in general produced medullary tissue and reached reproductive maturity before maximum size.
Discovery and species
The genus contains two species, Tenontosaurus tilletti (described by John Ostrom in 1970) and Tenontosaurus dossi (described by Winkler, Murray, and Jacobs in 1997). Many specimens of T. tilletti have been collected from the Cloverly Formation of Wyoming and Montana, and from the Antlers Formation of southern Oklahoma. T. dossi is known from only a handful of specimens collected from the Twin Mountains Formation of Parker County, Texas.
Deinonychus teeth and a number of skeletons were discovered associated with Tenontosaurus tilletti specimens, implying that this dinosaur was hunted and/or scavenged by Deinonychus.
Coelophysis (pronounced see-LOH-fye-siss), meaning "hollow form" in reference to its hollow bones (koilos meaning 'hollow' and physis meaning 'form'), is one of the earliest known genera of dinosaur. It was a small, carnivorous biped from North America. It first appeared in the Late Triassic Period, around 215 million years ago.The type species, C. bauri, was described by Edward Drinker Cope in 1889. The name Rioarribasaurus is synonymous with Coelophysis. Another dinosaur, Megapnosaurus, is also often considered synonymous with Coelophysis.
Coelophysis bauri is the earliest dinosaur known from a number of complete fossil skeletons. C. bauri was a lightly built dinosaur which measured up to three meters in length and which was than a meter tall at the hips. The name Coelophysis means "hollow form" or "hollow process", so named because of its hollow limb bones.
Coelophysis was very slim and it probably would have been a fast runner. Despite being an early dinosaur, the evolution of the theropod body form had already advanced greatly from creatures like Herrerasaurus and Eoraptor. The torso of Coelophysis conforms to the basic theropod body shape, but the pectoral girdle displays some interesting special characteristics: C. bauri had a furcula (wishbone), the earliest known example in a dinosaur. Coelophysis also preserves the ancestral condition of possessing four digits on the hand (manus). It had only three functional digits, the fourth embedded in the flesh of the hand.
The pelvis and hindlimbs of C. bauri are also slight variations on the theropod body plan. It has the open acetabulum and straight ankle hinge that define the Dinosauria. The hindlimb ended in a three-toed foot (pes), with a raised hallux.
The neck and tail were long. The tail of Coelophysis had an unusual structure within its interlocking prezygapophysis of its vertebrae, which formed a semi-rigid lattice, apparently to stop the tail from moving up and down. This may have let the tail act as a rudder or counterweight when the animal was maneuvering at high speeds.
Coelophysis had a long narrow head, and its sharp, curved, jagged teeth show that it ate meat - probably the small, lizard-like animals that were found with it. It may also have hunted in packs to tackle larger prey. Coelophysis had an elongated snout with large fenestrae which helped to reduce skull weight, while narrow struts of bones preserved the structural integrity of the skull. The neck had a pronounced sigmoid curve.
Coelophysis was probably opportunistic, catching live prey and scavenging. The teeth were typical of predatory dinosaurs, blade-like and recurved with fine serrations on both anterior and posterior edges.
Since our knowledge of Coelophysis comes mainly from the specimens excavated at Ghost Ranch, there is a tendency to see this massive congregation of animals as evidence for huge packs of Coelophysis roaming the land. The television series Walking with Dinosaurs, for example, showed small flocks together (and did not cite the Ghost Ranch deposits as evidence). No direct evidence for flocking exists; the deposits only indicate that large numbers of Coelophysis, along with other Triassic animals, were buried together. Some of the evidence from the taphonomy of the site indicates that these animals may have been gathered together to feed or drink from a depleted water hole or to feed on a spawning run of fish, and then became buried in a catastrophic flash flood.
It has been suggested that C. bauri was a cannibal, based on supposed juvenile specimens found "within" the abdominal cavities of some Ghost Ranch specimens. However, Rob Gay showed in 2002 that these specimens were misinterpreted (several specimens of "juvenile coelophysids" were actually small crurotarsan reptiles such as Hesperosuchus, and it appears that in some cases bigger individuals were crushed on top of smaller ones), and there is no longer any evidence to support cannibalistic behavior in Coelophysis. Gay's study was corroborated in 2006 in a subsequent study by Nesbitt et al. There may be other evidence coming to light that may show stomach contents from some of these specimens, which might bring greater resolution to the subject.
Two forms of Coelophysis have been found, a more gracile form and a slightly more robust form. Opinion among paleontologists is now that these were female and male variants.
History of discovery
Edward Drinker Cope first named Coelophysis in 1889 during his competition to name species with Othniel Charles Marsh, known as the "Bone Wars". An amateur fossil collector, David Baldwin, had found the first remains of the dinosaur in 1881. The type species, C. bauri was named for Baur, one of the many fossil collectors who supplied Cope. However, these first finds were too poorly preserved to give a complete picture of this new dinosaur.
In 1947, a substantial 'graveyard' of Coelophysis fossils was found in New Mexico, at the Ghost Ranch, close to the original find. So many fossils together were probably the result of a flash flood, which swept away a large number of Coelophysis and buried them quickly and simultaneously. In fact, it seems such flooding was commonplace during this period of the Earth's history and, indeed, the Petrified Forest of nearby Arizona is caused by a preserved log jam of tree trunks that were caught in one such flood. Edwin H. Colbert made a comprehensive study of all the fossils found up to that date, and it is from him that we take most of our information about Coelophysis. The Ghost Ranch specimens were so numerous, including many well-preserved specimens, that one of them has since become the diagnostic, or type specimen, for the entire genus, replacing the original, poorly preserved specimen.
Since the Ghost Ranch specimens were discovered, more skeletons have been found in Arizona, New Mexico and an as-yet unconfirmed specimen from Utah, including both adults and juveniles, the deposits where Coelophysis has been discovered date from the late Carnian to the early Norian faunal stages of the Triassic Period.
Edwin H. Colbert has suggested that Connecticut Valley theropod footprints referred to the ichnogenus Grallator may have been made by Coelophysis.
Coelophysis is a distinct taxonomic unit (genus), composed of a single species, C. bauri. Two additional species were originally described in addition to C. bauri, C. longicollis, and C. willistoni; however, they are not diagnostic and are considered synonymous with C. bauri. C. rhodesiensis is probably part of this generic complex, and is known from the Jurassic of southern Africa (see below for more). In phylogenetic taxonomy, Coelophysis is treated as a clade within the Coelophysidae.
In the early 1990s, there was debate over the diagnostic characteristics of the first specimens collected, compared to the material excavated at the Ghost Ranch Coelophysis quarry. Some paleontologists were of the opinion that the original specimens were not diagnostic beyond themselves and, therefore, that the name C. bauri could not be applied to any additional specimens. They therefore applied a different name, Rioarribasaurus, to the Ghost Ranch quarry specimens.
Since the numerous well-preserved Ghost Ranch specimes were used as Coelophysis in most of the scientific literature, the use of Rioarribasaurus would have been very inconvenient for researchers, so a petition was given to have the type specimen of Coelophysis transferred from the poorly-preserved original specimen to one of the well-preserved Ghost ranch specimens. In the end, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) voted to make one of the Ghost Ranch samples the actual type specimen for Coelophysis and dispose of the name Rioarribasaurus altogether (declaring it a nomen rejectum, or "rejected name"), thus resolving the confusion. The name Coelophysis therefore became a nomen conservandum ("conserved name").
Sullivan & Lucas (1999) referred one specimen from Cope's original material of Coelophysis (AMNH 2706) to what they thought was a newly discovered theropod, Eucoelophysis. However, subsequent studies have shown that Eucoelophysis was misidentified, and is actually a primitive, non-dinosaurian ornithodiran closely related to Silesaurus.
In addition to all of this, there is a competing controversy with another coelophysoid, Megapnosaurus, which many regard to be congeneric with Coelophysis. To make matters more confusing, Paul suggested that Coelophysis should be placed in Megapnosaurus (then known as Syntarsus) to get around the above-mentioned taxonomic confusion. In a situation affecting many dinosaur genera, many specimens were originally classified as new species but were in fact species of Coelophysis. For example, Prof. Mignon Talbot's 1911 discovery which she labeled Podokesaurus holyokensis, may be related to (or is) Coelophysis. In addition, C. posthumus, named by Friedrich von Huene in 1908, also needs reclassification and is tentatively titled Halticosaurus longotarsus at the moment.
Psittacosaurus (pronounced /ˌsɪtəkɵˈsɔrəs/, from the Greek for 'parrot lizard') is a genus of psittacosaurid ceratopsian dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Period of what is now Asia, about 130 to 100 million years ago. It is notable for being the most species-rich dinosaur genus. At least ten extinct species are recognized from fossils found in different regions of modern-day China, Mongolia and Russia, with a possible additional species from Thailand.
All species of Psittacosaurus were gazelle-sized bipedal herbivores characterized by a high, powerful beak on the upper jaw. At least one species had long, quill-like structures on its tail and lower back, possibly serving a display function. Psittacosaurs were extremely early ceratopsians and, while they developed many novel adaptations of their own, they also shared many anatomical features with later ceratopsians, such as Protoceratops and the elephant-sized Triceratops.
Psittacosaurus is not as familiar to the general public as its distant relative Triceratops but it is one of the most completely known dinosaur genera. Fossils of over 400 individuals have been collected so far, including many complete skeletons. Most different age classes are represented, from hatchling through to adult, which has allowed several detailed studies of Psittacosaurus growth rates and reproductive biology. The abundance of this dinosaur in the fossil record has led to its use as an index fossil for Early Cretaceous sediments of central Asia.
Different species of Psittacosaurus varied in size and specific features of the skull and skeleton, but shared the same overall body shape. The best-known species, P. mongoliensis, reached 2 meters (6.5 ft) in length. The maximum adult body weight was most likely over 20 kilograms (44 lb) in P. mongoliensis. Several species approached P. mongoliensis in size (P. major, P. neimongoliensis, P. xinjiangensis), while others were somewhat smaller (P. sinensis, P. meileyingensis). P. ordosensis was the smallest known species, 30% smaller than P. mongoliensis. The largest were P. lujiatunensis and P. sibiricus, although neither was significantly larger than P. mongoliensis.
The skull of Psittacosaurus was highly modified compared to other ornithischian dinosaurs of its time. The skull was extremely tall and short, with an almost round profile in some species. The portion in front of the orbit (eye socket) was only 40% of total skull length, shorter than any other known ornithischian. The lower jaws of psittacosaurs are characterized by a bulbous vertical ridge down the center of each tooth. Both upper and lower jaws sported a pronounced beak, formed from the rostral and predentary bones, respectively. The bony core of the beak may have been sheathed in keratin to provide a sharp cutting surface for cropping plant material. As the generic name suggests, the short skull and beak superficially resembled those of modern parrots. Psittacosaurus skulls shared several adaptations with more derived ceratopsians, such as the unique rostral bone at the tip of the upper jaw, and the flared jugal (cheek) bones. However, there was still no sign of the bony neck frill or prominent facial horns which would develop in later ceratopsians. Bony horns did protrude from the skull of P. sibiricus, but these are thought to be an example of convergent evolution.
Psittacosaurus postcranial skeletons were more typical of a 'generic' bipedal ornithischian. In P. mongoliensis, similarly to other species, the forelimbs were only 58% as long as the hindlimbs, indicating that these animals were almost totally bipedal in life. There were only four digits on the manus ('hand'), as opposed to the five found in most other ornithischians (including all other ceratopsians). Overall, the four-toed hindfoot was very similar to many other small ornithischians.[/color]
Psittacosaurus was named in 1923 by Henry Fairfield Osborn, paleontologist and president of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in a paper published on October 19. The generic name is composed of the Greek words ψιττακος/psittakos ('parrot') and σαυρος/sauros ('lizard'), suggested by the superficially parrot-like beak of these animals and their reptilian nature.
Over a dozen species have been referred to the genus Psittacosaurus, although only nine to eleven are considered valid today. This is the highest number of valid species currently assigned to any single dinosaur genus (not including birds). In contrast, most other dinosaur genera are monospecific, containing only a single known species. The difference is most likely due to quirks of the fossil record. While Psittacosaurus is known from hundreds of fossil specimens, most other dinosaur species are known from far fewer, and many are represented by only a single specimen. With a very high sample size, the diversity of Psittacosaurus can be analyzed more completely than that of most dinosaur genera, resulting in the recognition of more species. Most extant animal genera are represented by multiple species, suggesting that this may have been the case for extinct dinosaur genera as well, although most of these species may not have been preserved. In addition, most dinosaurs are known solely from bones and can only be evaluated from a morphological standpoint, whereas extant species often have very similar skeletal morphology but differ in other ways which would not normally be preserved in the fossil record, such as behavior, or coloration. Therefore actual species diversity may be much higher than currently recognized in this and other dinosaur genera.
Valid Psittacosaurus species
Psittacosaurus mongoliensis — Mongolia, northern China Psittacosaurus sinensis — northeastern China Psittacosaurus meileyingensis — north-central China Psittacosaurus xinjiangensis — northwestern China Psittacosaurus neimongoliensis — north-central China Psittacosaurus ordosensis — north-central China Psittacosaurus mazongshanensis — northwestern China Psittacosaurus sibiricus - Russia (southern Siberia) Psittacosaurus lujiatunensis - northeastern China Psittacosaurus major - northeastern China Psittacosaurus gobiensis - Inner Mongolia Possible Psittacosaurus species ?Psittacosaurus sattayaraki - Thailand
Psittacosaurus is the type genus of the family Psittacosauridae, which was also named by Osborn in 1923. Only one other genus, Hongshanosaurus, is currently classified in this family alongside Psittacosaurus. Psittacosaurids were basal to almost all known ceratopsians except Yinlong and perhaps Chaoyangsauridae. While Psittacosauridae was an early branch of the ceratopsian family tree, Psittacosaurus itself was probably not directly ancestral to any other groups of ceratopsians. All other ceratopsians retained the fifth digit of the hand, a plesiomorphy or primitive trait, whereas all species of Psittacosaurus had only four digits on the hand. In addition, the antorbital fenestra, an opening in the skull between the eye socket and nostril, was lost during the evolution of Psittacosauridae, but is still found in most other ceratopsians and in fact most other archosaurs. It is considered highly unlikely that the fifth digit or antorbital fenestra would evolve a second time.
Although many species of Psittacosaurus have been named, their relationships to each other have not yet been fully explored and no scientific consensus exists on the subject. The most recent and most detailed cladistic analysis was published by Alexander Averianov and colleagues in 2006. It has been suggested that P. lujiatunensis is basal to all other species. This would be consistent with its earlier appearance in the fossil record.
Psittacosaurus is known from over 400 individual specimens, of which over 75 have been assigned to the type species, P. mongoliensis. All Psittacosaurus fossils discovered so far have been found in Early Cretaceous sediments in Asia, from southern Siberia to northern China, or possibly as far south as Thailand. The most common age of geologic formations bearing Psittacosaurus fossils is from the late Barremian through Albian stages of the Early Cretaceous, or approximately 125 to 100 Ma (million years ago). Nearly all terrestrial sedimentary formations of this age in Mongolia and northern China have produced fossils of Psittacosaurus, leading its use as an index fossil for this time period in the region, along with the very common pterosaur Dsungaripterus.
The earliest known species is P. lujiatunensis, found in the lowest beds of the Yixian Formation. Over 200 specimens attributed to this genus have been recovered from these and other beds of the Yixian, the age of which is the subject of much debate. Although many early studies using radiometric dating put the Yixian in the Jurassic Period, tens of millions of years outside of the expected temporal range of Psittacosaurus, most recent work dates it to the Early Cretaceous. Using argon-argon dating, a team of Chinese scientists dated the lowest beds in the formation to about 128 Ma, and the highest to approximately 122 Ma. A more recent Chinese study, using uranium-lead dating, suggests that the lower beds are younger, approximately 125 Ma, while agreeing with an age of 122 Ma for the upper beds. This work indicates that the Yixian is early Aptian in age, or possibly late Barremian to early Aptian.
Psittacosaurs had self-sharpening teeth that would have been useful for cropping and slicing tough plant material. However, unlike later ceratopsians, they did not have teeth suitable for grinding or chewing their food. Instead, they used gastroliths, stones swallowed to wear down food as it passed through the digestive system. Gastroliths, sometimes numbering more than fifty, are occasionally found in the abdominal cavities of psittacosaurs, and may have been stored in a gizzard, as in modern birds.
Several juvenile Psittacosaurus have been found. The smallest is a P. mongoliensis hatchling in the AMNH collection, which is only 11 to 13 centimeters (4–5 inches) long, with a skull 2.8 centimeters (1 in) in length. Another hatchling skull at the AMNH is only 4.6 centimeters (1.8 inches) long. Both specimens are from Mongolia. Juveniles discovered in the Yixian Formation are approximately the same age as the larger AMNH specimen. Adult Psittacosaurus mongoliensis approached 2 meters (6.5 ft) in length.
A histological examination of P. mongoliensis has determined the growth rate of these animals. The smallest specimens in the study were estimated at three years old and less than 1 kilogram (2.2 lb), while the largest were nine years old and weighed almost 20 kilograms (44 lb). This indicates relatively rapid growth compared to most reptiles and marsupial mammals, but slower than modern birds and placental mammals. An age determination study performed on the fossilized remains of Psittacosaurus mongoliensis by using growth ring counts suggest that the longevity of the basal ceratopsian was between 10 or 11 years.[/i][/size]
bricabrach: Hi Ben, welcome to our forum. What’s often been recommended in the past is to see what your item has been selling for on eBay.
Aug 28, 2019 20:40:23 GMT -5
Ben: Can anyone help me out with pricing? Any information is helpful.
Aug 25, 2019 9:07:15 GMT -5
applejack: Hi Kivuli. There's plenty of cross-pollination of members between the various Dinotopia forums, so the names you see here and on other boards are almost certainly the same people. Welcome to the official message board!
Jul 7, 2019 18:40:36 GMT -5
Kivuli: I've seen this list posted on other boards. This one seems to have the most activity. Is this a migration of the same users?
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cptstarlight: Dinotopia, like returning to the company of an old friend. Should old friends be forgot and never thought upon? I think not.
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bricabrach: And yes! There's nothing like Dinotopia! Breathe deep, seek peace.
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DinoAnon: Remember to uphold personal honour and find your own glory in the world and your traditions. Halcyon and the Knights of the Unrivaled could have done no less. Good bye, Dinotopia.
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